I'm working on my Russian grandfather's genealogy, and getting confused. His father (Michael) immigrated around 1897-1903 depending on which US census data should be believed. In the 1920 census, he lists himself as Russian, and his parents as Russian. In the 1930 census, where it asks the "country in which the birthplace is now situated" -- and for Michael and his parents, the answer is now Poland. The likely ship immigration records record him with a surname that looks like the Polish transliteration of his last name, and many of the fellow passengers have ethnicities listed as Austria,Polish (listed that way) or Austria, Ruthenian, or Galicy (which I think is another form of Galicia.) Never see the Polish version of the name used after that. His wife (Maria) immigrated 1900-1903. In the 1920 census she's also listed as Russian with Russian parents. In 1930, she is listed as coming from Galicia, and her parents the same. In yet another document they are listed as Ruthenian. In everything listed, the language they spoke is Russian. Kids were baptized in the "Russian Orthodox Greek-Catholic Church of America" and for religion the priest has written in Russian Orthodox. (I guess he could have written in Greek-Catholic instead -- I was kind of surprised to see option on a church baptism record.) 1. From what I've read, The Council of Vienna gave back some territory that had been held by Russia +/or Ukraine to Poland. Is there a way to narrow down which part of this territory he came from based on his answers? 2. I am confused about the Galicia part vs. the Ruthenian part -- any suggestions as to how to interpret this? 3. What geographic or ethnic distinction would you draw between his background and hers? Does it seem likely that they came from the same village or area? 4. Any significance to them attending a Russian Orthodox Greek-Catholic Church vs. a Russian Orthodox church in NY? Thanks for any assistance.